Date of Award


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy


Interdisciplinary Health Sciences


Alvaro N. Gurovich


Early stages of high blood pressure, such as elevated blood pressure or stage 1 hypertension, have shown to increase cardiovascular mortality. Exercise is recommended for the prevention and treatment of high blood pressure; however, most clinical evidence is based on traditional types of exercise that have relatively high dropout rates. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of boxing training, a nontraditional exercise modality, on clinical and vascular outcomes and its relation to blood flow patterns in individuals with elevated blood pressure or stage 1 hypertension. To achieve these goals, two experiments were designed. The first one, a randomized controlled trial, evaluated the effects of boxing training on brachial blood pressure, central blood pressure, arterial stiffness, cardiorespiratory fitness, cardiac adaptations, body composition, lipid profile, quality of life, vascular adaptations, nitric oxide bioavailability, inflammation, and oxidative stress in individuals with elevated blood pressure or stage 1 hypertension. The main findings were that 6 weeks of boxing training, with a polarized intensity regime, in individuals with elevated blood pressure or stage 1 hypertension improved clinical outcomes, such as peripheral and central blood pressure, resting heart rate, myocardial wall thickness, VO2max, ventilatory and lactate thresholds, and quality of life, and vascular outcomes, such as conduit artery endothelial function, resistance vessels structure and endothelial function, and carotid artery structure. All these changes were linked to an increased nitric oxide bioavailability and a reduction in inflammation. The second one, a cross-sectional study, confirmed that endothelial shear stress in the common carotid artery increased during boxing training in individuals with elevated blood pressure or stage 1 hypertension.

Altogether, we proposed that boxing training is a suitable alternative for the management of elevated blood pressure and stage 1 hypertension.




Received from ProQuest

File Size

211 pages

File Format


Rights Holder

Francisco Morales

Available for download on Saturday, June 19, 2021