Date of Award


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy




Md Nurunnabi


The skin is the largest organ in the body and plays many crucial roles through diverse functions ranging from protection, temperature regulation, energy storage via fat deposits, and is used to communicate with our surroundings. Various methods have been attempted to deliver drugs to target areas of the skin in effective dosages by a variety of means with limited success. Recently, advances in transdermal drug delivery have offered avenues previously unattainable through conventional means. Some of these new delivery methods have been reviewed, explored and offer promising results with the potential to carve a new avenue in the way therapeutic substances may be consumed.

In one study, a novel miconazole-ufosome nano carrier was characterized, the formulation was optimized in approximately a <300 nm diameter lipid carrier, and at the same time achieved an entrapment efficiency of 62%. In-vitro permeation studies displayed significant targeted transdermal drug delivery to the site of infection in higher amounts than conventional marketed creams, and antifungal studies showed that the current formulation greatly enhanced the efficacy of antifungal activity when compared to standalone miconazole while displaying low toxicity and high biocompatibility.

In another study, we have developed a combination of choline and octenoic acid ionic liquid with an experimental anticancer BCI-2 inhibitor, ABT-263 (navitoclax) to combat melanoma by delivering the drug directly to the site of infection. This formula was characterized and optimized for loading capacity, size, and stability. Cell internalization was achieved at higher levels due to the penetrative capabilities of the ionic liquid, while toxicity remained low. Skin permeation studies displayed significantly higher penetration into the target site, displaying capabilities previously unattainable for non-invasive transdermal drug delivery.




Received from ProQuest

File Size

101 pages

File Format


Rights Holder

Isaac Giovanni Deaguero

Included in

Biomedical Commons