Myokine Expression in Muscle and Myotubes in Response to Exercise Stimulation
Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
© 2015 by the American College of Sports Medicine. Purpose Myokines have been shown to affect muscle physiology and exert systemic effects. We endeavored to investigate a panel of myokine mRNA expression after a single exercise bout (studies 1 and 2) to measure myokine mRNA in primary human myotubes in an in vitro exercise model (study 2). Methods Vastus lateralis muscle biopsies were obtained from 20 healthy males (age, 24.0 ± 4.5 yr; BMI, 23.6 ± 1.8 kg·m-2) before and after a single exercise bout (650 kcal at 50% VO2max). Primary myotubes from active and sedentary male donors were treated with a pharmacological cocktail (palmitate, forskolin, and ionomycin (PFI)) to mimic exercise-stimulated contractions in vitro. Results Interleukin 6 and 8 (IL-6 and IL-8), leukocyte-inducing factor, and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) mRNA levels increased approximately 10-fold after a single exercise bout (all P < 0.001), whereas myostatin levels decreased (P < 0.05). Key correlations between myokine expression and parameters of muscle and whole-body physiology were found: myostatin versus skeletal muscle citrate synthase activity (r =-0.69, P < 0.001), VO2max (r =-0.64, P = 0.002) and the percentage of Type I fibers (r =-0.55, P = 0.01); IL-6 versus the RER (r = 0.45, P = 0.04), homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (r = 0.44, P = 0.05), and serum lactate (r = 0.50, P = 0.02). Myokine expressions in myotubes from sedentary donors for CTGF and myostatin decreased, whereas IL-6 and IL-8 increased after PFI treatment. In myotubes from active donors, myokine expression increased for IL-6, CTGF, and myostatin but decreased for IL-8 after PFI treatment. Conclusion These data offer insight into the differences in regulation of myokine expression and their possible physiologic relationships.