Jose M. Espinoza

Interview in Spanish.

Summary of Interview

Mr. Espinoza recalls the harsh conditions he experienced while growing up in Coalcomán, Michoacán; at an early age he started working with his parents harvesting corn and beans; Mr. Espinoza became a Bracero in the year of 1957, he came to the United States to work along with 3 home town friends; he remembers traveling by train along with many others, Mr. Espinoza recalls getting stripped of his clothes and fumigated in Caléxico, California; Mr. Espinoza remembers having some of his personal belongings taken away because they were not allowed to bring anything besides the clothes they had on; Mr. Espinoza remembers harvesting pears and having to carry a heavy 15 foot ladder from tree to tree; he states that he worked 10 hour shifts and got paid $0.35 an hour; Mr. Espinoza never participated in any patriotic celebrations because work was very demanding and he preferred to rest during his spare time; Mr. Espinoza does not have a good nor bad experience of the Bracero program, stating it was just a way to make a living.