Pioneering Concepts for 3D Electromagnetics
This work introduces two paradigm changing concepts that will push electromagnetics (EM) to the third dimension. The first of that work involves the introduction of the conformal Spatially Variant Lattice (SVL) algorithm that can conform any periodic structure onto arbitrary curvature. The algorithms robustness is confirmed by conforming a frequency selective surface (FSS) onto an extreme paraboloid, proving the algorithms robustness on high sloping surfaces. Three FSSs were made in total; a standard flat FSS, a projected FSS, and a FSS made through the conformal SVL algorithm. Measured results are shown and match well to simulation. Secondly, in the world of 3D printing, a lot of research focuses on printing devices that are already manufactured much better by other means. Producing designs that fully exploit the third dimension is desperately needed in order to truly showcase the potential of 3D printing. Initial steps were proven via the production of the world’s first true 3D/volumetric circuit and the early design of 3D radio frequency (RF) interconnects. In this work, design rules and best practices for hybrid printing of arbitrary metal/dielectric structures are pioneered through the manufacturing of a volumetric compact ultrawideband antenna (CUA). The antenna’s manufacturing was explored in three different ways. First a design was printed in plastic and then coated in conductive paste, emulating the electroplating approach typically found in literature. Second, a 2.5D segment stacking approach was explored by hybrid printing the CUA in multiple segments. Lastly, a CUA was printed as a true hybrid print in a monolithic design using a single print job. Electromagnetic measurements of the voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) between these three approaches are compared. Through the combination of algorithms and hybrid printing uniquely tailored for 3D, EM design can take advantage of what can be offered by the third dimension. Circuits can be radically miniaturized and made to fit unconventional form factors, conformal printing algorithms can be explored, 3D/volumetric antenna designs and metamaterial based approaches among many more can be explored.
Valle, Cesar Luis, "Pioneering Concepts for 3D Electromagnetics" (2022). ETD Collection for University of Texas, El Paso. AAI30000386.