Multi-Sensor Signatures from Ultrasonic Wire Embedding Used in Hybrid Additive Manufacturing

Patrick Steven Gutierrez, University of Texas at El Paso


Additive Manufacturing (AM) has matured such that its products are used in applications ranging from prototypes to end-use parts; however, to expand the adoption of AM, the inclusion of multiple manufacturing technologies has become a focus area especially when the result is a 3D printed part with an embedded electrical system. The W.M. Keck Center for 3D Innovation has developed the Foundry Multi3D system consisting of two material extrusion AM machines, a robotic arm, and a CNC machine equipped with a laser soldering tool, solder micro-dispensing tool and an ultrasonic wire embedding (USWE) tool. The focus of this paper is on data collected during the use of the USWE system while embedding 24 AWG copper wire into printed polycarbonate (PC) substrates. Data was collected from a one-axis accelerometer and a load cell, both of which were mounted in close proximity to the USWE’s transducer, in addition to power measurements from the USWE’s processor. Process events such as pulse activation, end of pulse activation, and system movements were diagnosed. Pulse duration, clamping force, and amplitude were explored to characterize their effect using data collected during wire embedding events. Tools were developed using to quickly breakdown the complex data produced from the system. Testing and data analysis was able to determine what a successful wire embedding signature would look like, while determining process parameters that could be used to improve the system or could cause deformation and damage to the specimens. Additional testing was conducted on a novel modified USWE tip that had a smaller landing. Testing compared amplitude and optical microscopy observation for deformations and wire-to-wire distance. The tests were able to conclude what negative effects a higher amplitude could cause to parts. The wire-to-wire analysis was able to conclude that there was a high degree of variability when it came to embedding wires that were of such small diameter.

Subject Area

Mechanical engineering

Recommended Citation

Gutierrez, Patrick Steven, "Multi-Sensor Signatures from Ultrasonic Wire Embedding Used in Hybrid Additive Manufacturing" (2022). ETD Collection for University of Texas, El Paso. AAI29324767.