The Association between Bilateral Broad Jump Performance and the Sprint Profile
Horizontal force application is vital to attain high velocities during sprinting. Similarly, broad jump performance is associated with the application of horizontal force to achieve greater jump distance. The video analysis-based sprint profile provides insight into multiple measures of sprint performance including maximal theoretical horizontal force, maximal theoretical velocity, optimal velocity, and maximal speed, which give an indication of overall sprint performance that is not reliant on spatiotemporal data alone. PURPOSE: To determine the relationship between broad jump distance and power output and the sprint profile of Division I track and field athletes. METHODS: This study was conducted as a cross-sectional study among 19 male and female Division I Track and Field athletes from the University of Texas at El Paso. Subjects completed two countermovement broad jump trials and the distance from the start line to the closest landing mark was obtained to the nearest centimeter. Subjects then completed two 30-meter maximal sprints. A mobile device with the MySprint mobile application was used to obtain subjects’ sprint profile including maximal theoretical horizontal force, maximal theoretical velocity, optimal velocity, maximal speed, maximal power, maximal ratio of force, force-velocity slope, decrease in ratio of force. RESULTS: Significant correlations were found between broad jump distance and the maximal theoretical horizontal force (r = 0.573, p = 0.01; large), maximal power (r = 0.608, p = 0.006; large), and the maximal ratio of force (r = 0.548, p = 0.015; large). The resultant force (N) during the broad jump was significantly correlated with theoretical maximal velocity (r = 0.625, p = 0.004; large), maximal power (r = 0.607, p = 0.006; large), optimal velocity (r = 0.625, p = 0.004; large), and maximal ratio of force (r = 0.642, p = 0.003; large). The vertical force output (N) was correlated with maximal theoretical velocity (r = 0.594, p = 0.007; large), maximal theoretical power (r = 5.89, p = 0.008; large), optimal velocity (r = 0.594, p = 0.007; large) and the maximal ratio of force (r = 0.646, p = 0.003; large). The horizontal force output during the broad jump was correlated with the maximal theoretical velocity (r = 0.625, p = 0.004; large), maximal power (r = 0.547, p = 0.015; large), maximal ratio of force (r = 0.574, p = 0.010; large) and optimal velocity (r = 0.625, p0.004; large). Simple linear regression analyses indicated that broad jump resultant force is the best predictor of 30 meter sprint completion time (R2 = 0.42, p < 0.01). A multiple linear regression indicated that a model containing both broad jump distance and horizontal force production during the broad jump can predict sprint completion time with 43% of the variance explained (p = 0.010). CONCLUSION: To the author’s knowledge, this is the first study to explore the relationship between broad jump force output and the components of the sprint profile. Coaches and athletes can use this information to design training programs that focus on the development of horizontal force production by implementing exercises such as a broad jump. Furthermore, the broad jump may be used as a diagnostic tool to assess horizontal force production.
Rodriguez, Sergio Alfonso, "The Association between Bilateral Broad Jump Performance and the Sprint Profile" (2021). ETD Collection for University of Texas, El Paso. AAI28544085.