Often, we deal with black-box or grey-box systems where we can observe the overall system's behavior, but we do not have access to the system's internal structure. In many such situations, the system actually consists of two (or more) independent components: a) how can we detect this based on observed system's behavior? b) what can we learn about the independent subsystems based on the observation of the system as a whole? In this paper, we provide (partial) answers to these questions.
Technical Report: UTEP-CS-22-71