Publication Date



Technical Report: UTEP-CS-22-38


In probability theory, rare events are usually described as events with low probability p, i.e., events for which in N observations, the event happens n(N) ~ p*N times. Physicists and philosophers suggested that there may be events which are even rarer, in which n(N) grows slower than N. However, this idea has not been developed, since it was not clear how to describe it in precise terms. In this paper, we propose a possible precise description of this idea, and we use this description to answer a natural question: when two different functions n(N) lead to the same class of possible "truly rare" sequences.