Publication Date



Technical Report: UTEP-CS-18-75


The educational landscape is becoming a digital learning environment. Students in today's digital world draw from multiple sources of information; from hypertext, videos, social media, to video games and internet searches. English Learners, individuals learning two languages at once, who use software written in English have a passive relationship with the computer when software is not in their native language. They feel that this educational software belongs to another culture. This paper will present findings from a study with English Learners' engagement in a fully online pre-calculus course. The authors utilized Cultural-Historical Activity Theory to describe how English Learners' created authentic bilingual learning environments and improved their self-efficacy for mathematics.