Effects Of Zno Nanoparticles In Alfalfa, Tomato, And Cucumber At The Germination Stage: Root Development And X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy Studies
Past reports indicate that some nanoparticles (NPs) affect seed germination; however, the biotransformation of metal NPs is still not well understood. This study investigated the toxicity on seed germination/root elongation and the uptake of ZnO NPs and Zn2+ in alfalfa (Medicago sativa), cucumber (Cucumis sativus), and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) seedlings. Seeds were treated with ZnO NPs at 0–1600 mg L–1 as well as 0–250 mg L–1 Zn2+ for comparison purposes. Results showed that at 1600 mg L–1 ZnO NPs, germination in cucumber increased by 10 %, and alfalfa and tomato germination were reduced by 40 and 20 %, respectively. At 250 mg Zn2+ L–1, only tomato germination was reduced with respect to controls. The highest Zn content was of 4700 and 3500 mg kg–1 dry weight (DW), for alfalfa seedlings germinated in 1600 mg L–1 ZnO NPs and 250 mg L–1 Zn2+, respectively. Bulk X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) results indicated that ZnO NPs were probably biotransformed by plants. The edge energy positions of NP-treated samples were at the same position as Zn(NO3)2, which indicated that Zn in all plant species was as Zn(II).