Removal of copper, lead, and zinc from contaminated water by saltbush biomass: Analysis of the optimum binding, stripping, and binding mechanism
Experiments performed on the Cu(II), Pb(II), and Zn(II) binding by saltbush biomass (Atriplex canescens) showed that the metal binding increased as pH increased from 2.0 to 5.0. The highest amounts of Cu, Pb, and Zn bound by the native biomass varied from 48-89%, 89-94%, and 65-73%, respectively. The hydrolyzed biomass bound similar amount of Pb and 50% more Cu and Zn than the native. The esterified biomass had a lower binding capacity than native; however, esterified flowers bound 45% more Cu at pH 2.0 than native flowers. The optimum binding time was 10 min or less. More than 60% of the bound Cu was recovered using 0.1 mM HCl, while more than 90% of Pb was recovered with either HCl or sodium citrate at 0.1 mM. For Zn, 0.1 mM sodium citrate allowed the recovery of 75%. Results indicated that carboxyl groups participate in the Cu, Pb, and Zn binding. © 2007.