Determination of fluoride in drinking water and in urine of adolescents living in three counties in Northern Chihuahua Mexico using a fluoride ion selective electrode
This study was carried out to determine fluoride in drinking water and in urine of adolescents, ages 15-20 years, living in Northern Chihuahua Mexico. Participants are from a cross-sectional study on health effects of chronic fluoride exposure from drinking water. A total of 201 participants (106 female and 95 male) in the study were recruited from three counties. Samples of drinking water of each county were collected and analyzed using the U.S. EPA Fluoride Ion-Selective Method. Statistically significant difference of fluoride content in water was found among the three counties of recruitment (Cd. Juarez; 0.3 mg/L, Samalayuca, 1.0 mg/L, and Villa Ahumada, 5.3 mg/L). Fluoride content in wells and tap water samples of Villa Ahumada ranged from 5.0 to 5.7 mg/L. Fluoride content of these samples was above the level permitted by Mexican regulations. The fluoride content in bottled water obtained from local stores in Villa Ahumada ranged from 0.3 to 3.7 mg/l. Fluoride in urine samples of each participant was also analyzed using the U.S. EPA Ion-Selective Method. The mean fluoride urine concentration (reported in mg/g creatinine) in adolescents living in these counties was 0.792±0.39, 1.33±0.67 and 2.22±1.16 (Cd. Juarez, Samalayuca and Villa Ahumada), respectively. The high fluoride urinary levels found in participants from Villa Ahumada may be associated to the high fluoride level (5.3 mg/L) in dinking water. The accuracy of measurements was assessed with reference materials in water and in urine. Mean fluoride recovery was 99.0% and 99.6% in water and in urine, respectively. The levels obtained were within the assayed 5% confidence levels. © 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.