Metal Nanoparticles for Electrochemical Sensing: Progress and Challenges in the Clinical Transition of Point-of-Care Testing
Molecules (Basel, Switzerland)
With the rise in public health awareness, research on point-of-care testing (POCT) has significantly advanced. Electrochemical biosensors (ECBs) are one of the most promising candidates for the future of POCT due to their quick and accurate response, ease of operation, and cost effectiveness. This review focuses on the use of metal nanoparticles (MNPs) for fabricating ECBs that has a potential to be used for POCT. The field has expanded remarkably from its initial enzymatic and immunosensor-based setups. This review provides a concise categorization of the ECBs to allow for a better understanding of the development process. The influence of structural aspects of MNPs in biocompatibility and effective sensor design has been explored. The advances in MNP-based ECBs for the detection of some of the most prominent cancer biomarkers (carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), cancer antigen 125 (CA125), Herceptin-2 (HER2), etc.) and small biomolecules (glucose, dopamine, hydrogen peroxide, etc.) have been discussed in detail. Additionally, the novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) ECBs have been briefly discussed. Beyond that, the limitations and challenges that ECBs face in clinical applications are examined and possible pathways for overcoming these limitations are discussed.