A comprehensive review of cytochrome P450 2E1 for xenobiotic metabolism
Drug Metabolism Reviews
© 2019, © 2019 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group. Cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) plays a vital role in drug-induced hepatotoxicity and cancers (e.g. lung and bladder cancer), since it is responsible for metabolizing a number of medications and environmental toxins to reactive intermediate metabolites. CYP2E1 was recently found to be the highest expressed CYP enzyme in human livers using a proteomics approach, and CYP2E1-related toxicity is strongly associated with its protein level that shows significant inter-individual variability related to ethnicity, age, and sex. Furthermore, the expression of CYP2E1 demonstrates regulation by extensive genetic polymorphism, endogenous hormones, cytokines, xenobiotics, and varying pathological states. Over the past decade, the knowledge of pharmacology, toxicology, and biology about CYP2E1 has grown remarkably, but the research progress has yet to be summarized. This study presents a timely systematic review on CYP2E1’s xenobiotic metabolism, genetic polymorphism, and inhibitors, with the focus on their clinical relevance for the efficacy and toxicity of various CYP2E1 substrates. Moreover, several knowledge gaps have been identified towards fully understanding the potential interactions among different CYP2E1 substrates in clinical settings. Through in-depth analyses of these knowns and unknowns, we expect this review will aid in future drug development and improve management of CYP2E1 related clinical toxicity.