Date of Award


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy


Material Science and Engineering


Lawrence E. Murr

Second Advisor

Kristine Garza



Vascularization or angiogenesis on newly implanted metal orthopedic implants has remained a challenge in the field of tissue engineering. In this research, an interconnected foam structure of Ti-6Al-4V was micro-fabricated by Electron Beam Melting (EBM) technique. The foam in question has a density of 1.77g/cm3 with 60% porosity and a tensile strength of 18GPa. An Extracellular Matrix based hydrogel was added as an aqueous matrix to the foam in question. Hypoxia mimetic stress has been closely related to many wound healing biomedical applications as it increases survival and proliferation molecular signals. To that end, increased expression of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α (Hif-1α) and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) in the aqueous hydrogel matrix was achieved by the addition of a hypoxia mimetic Deferoxamine Mesylate (DFM). In this study, the formation of an endothelial network was achieved in a hydrogel matrix in the presence of the before mentioned 3D printed metal foam. Cellular viability, fluorescent microscopy and SEM imaging analysis demonstrate that pre-osteoblasts undergo proliferation and also attach efficiently to the foam when exposed to DFM. Human Umbilical Vascular Endothelial Cells (HUVECs) were grown in an Extracellular Matrix-like 3D hydrogel and a hypoxia-like stress was achieved. It has been demonstrated that pre-osteoblast cells undergo cell differentiation and increase the production of hydroxyapatite upon the hypoxia mimetic molecule. This proposed approach encompasses an ideal prototype for a completely living implanted structure for future orthopedic implants.




Received from ProQuest

File Size

82 pages

File Format


Rights Holder

Victor Correa