Date of Award

2021-08-01

Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy

Department

Mechanical Engineering

Advisor(s)

Ahsan A. Choudhuri

Abstract

Pressurized oxy-coal combustion-based systems can improve efficiency by recovering latent heat of the steam in the Flue Gas and achieving 90% CO2 capture. In addition, the novel Directly Heated Supercritical Carbon Dioxide (DH-SCO2) power cycles can achieve high thermal efficiencies and provide nearly full carbon capture. Additionally, due to the reduction of flue gas at higher pressure, smaller system size and capital cost reductions are also possible. Recent thermodynamic analysis of the DH-SCO2 cycle performed by the UTEP research team shows that combustion conditions in the vicinity of 300 bar pressure and 1000-1400 K temperature allow for relatively high system efficiencies while operating within the limit of available combustor materials. However, the realization of a directly heated supercritical power cycle requires combustion systems to operate in supercritical conditions and at temperature far below the blowout limit of conventional flames (above 1500 K). The thermodynamic properties along with the combustion properties and kinetics are unexplored at such conditions. Additionally, the interaction of the supercritical environment with energy components is also unknown. High-pressure combustion tests are performed using a smart burner at some intermediate pressure ranges (<20 bar) to help minimize these knowledge gaps. The knowledge obtained from the high-pressure test will assist in understanding the combustion chamber pressurization mechanism, ignition and flame behavior at the elevated pressure. The obtained data will act as a systematic first step in testing at higher pressures of 100 and 300 bar pressures.The primary purpose of this Dissertation is to demonstrate the operability of a low NOx smart burner for oxy-methane combustion at high pressure (< 20 bar) and scalable up to supercritical conditions. A shear co-axial smart burner is designed with a real-time temperature monitoring capability to understand the burner face interaction at high-pressure conditions. In addition, the burner has four independent injection ports to allow the independent injection of fuel and dilution gases in the combustor. The maximum operating capability of the burner is 575 kWth. The burner was fabricated using a Laser Powder Bed Fusion process with Nickel Alloy 718. A powder removal technology was invented comprising ultrasonic vibration, liquid nitrogen exposure and media blasting to remove powders from internal channels of the burner. The burner operability tests are performed in the high-pressure combustor and the swirl combustor. The high-pressure combustor was used to investigate the burner operability and thermal soak back at different pressurized conditions. The experimental tests in high-pressure combustor up to 275 kWth input resulted in 16.5 bar chamber pressure and 198°C thermal soaks back to the burner. The burner was capable of providing the required thermal input within a 3% deviation range. In addition, soot formation occurred at high-pressure tests. The swirl combustor was used to observe the flame stability of the burner. Flame lift-off was observed for jet velocities above 450 m/s. Additionally, lift-off decreased for low co-flow velocities. CO2 dilution experiments showed increased flame instabilities for all conditions above 50% dilution ratios. At lower thermal inputs, partial flame blow-offs occurred for dilution ratios above 50%. All conditions significantly reduced the flame temperature and increased the flame lift-off height. Finally, a 2nd generation AM smart burner was designed using the knowledge from the 1st generation burner experiments. The 2nd generation burner incorporated two sets of swirlers with 0.9 swirl no. A cooling system was also designed for long-duration tests at higher pressures. The thermal input and division of the burner's power are kept the same as the 1st generation burner. The burner is to be fabricated using nickel-alloy 718 for high-pressure handling capability. The design can sustain at high-pressure conditions up to 100 bar.

Language

en

Provenance

Recieved from ProQuest

File Size

258 p.

File Format

application/pdf

Rights Holder

Md Nawshad Arslan Islam

Available for download on Monday, August 25, 2121

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