Juventino Muñoz P.


Anaís Acosta


Bracero Oral History

Biographical Synopsis of Interviewee

Mr. Juventino Muñoz was born on November 11th, 1943, in Lagunillas Fontezuelas, Michoacán, México; his parents had lands and his family lived well; at 12 his family lost everything and he had to help by working in the fields; he was formally educated through the fourth grade; later in 1963 he became a bracero and worked in the cucumber, lemon and orange fields of Michigan, and California; his last contract ended in 1964, when the Bracero Program ended; he went back to Mexico and later immigrated to the United States.

Summary of Interview

Mr. Muñoz briefly recalls his family and childhood; he remembers his family living under good conditions having lands and animals; when he was around 12 years old his family lost everything and he had to quit school in order to work in the fields; he served in the Mexican military until he became a bracero in June of 1963; Mr. Muñoz recalls the entire process, including going through centers in Piedras Negras and Mexicali; in addition, he mentions going through medical examinations; as a bracero he worked in the cucumber fields in Michigan and then he worked on the lemon and orange fields of California; he goes into detail about the living and working conditions, camps size, payments, friendships, and recreational activities; Mr. Muñoz completed his contracts and on February 15th, 1964 he completed his last one because the bracero program ended; he went back to Mexico and later he managed to arrange his residency with the help of his brother and his boss; he ultimately raised his children in the United States; Mr. Muñoz says his overall memories of being a bracero are positive and that because of the Bracero Program he was able to meet many places and improve his economic situation.

Date of Interview


Length of Interview

56 minutes

Tape Number


Transcript Number


Length of Transcript

33 pages


GMR Transcription Services

Interview Number


Terms of Use



Interview in Spanish.