Characterization of 3D Printed Polylactic Acid/ Polycaprolactone/titanium Dioxide Composites for Bone Replacement and Grafting
A material that mimics the properties of bones was developed by optimizing the ratio of polymer composites of polylactic acid (PLA) and poly-ϵ-caprolactone (PCL), containing small amounts of titanium oxide (TiO2). Although titanium-based alloys have commonly been used for bone replacement procedures due to their biocompatibility with the human body and their mechanical properties, stress shielding continues to be a problem. The structure of a bone has a porosity which permits the flow of nutrients, blood, oxygen and minerals, and is an issue at the time of creating bone replacements using conventional methods. PLA and PCL have been used in biomedical applications due to their biocompatibility with the human body and their mechanical properties in vivo. PLA and PCL provide strength to the artificial cancellous bone supplying the initial support, and allowing the gradual degradation desired in the human body. In this work the polymer composite materials were prepared, then filaments were used to print the 3D structures using Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM), after which their physical, chemical, mechanical and biological properties were tested. Different characterization methods were used, such as differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), tensile testing, and scanning electron microscopy to evaluate the effect of the fillers. The printed composites show excellent in vitro biocompatibility including cell proliferation, adhesion and osteoblast differentiation and are therefore promising candidates to be used in the field of bio-medical applications. Furthermore, PLA/PCL composites infused with TiO2 seem to be a good option specifically for bone replacement procedures, since the mechanical properties of PLA/PCL/TiO2 composites are similar to the cancellous bones making them a viable option for bone replacement and grafting procedures.
Najera Beltran, Sandra Elena, "Characterization of 3D Printed Polylactic Acid/ Polycaprolactone/titanium Dioxide Composites for Bone Replacement and Grafting" (2018). ETD Collection for University of Texas, El Paso. AAI10823118.