Publication Date



Technical Report: UTEP-CS-98-5

Published in the International Journal of Uncertainty, Fuzziness, and Knowledge-Based Systems (IJUFKS), 1998, Vol. 6, No. 4, pp. 387-399.


Textbooks often claim that quantum mechanics explained the periodic system: namely, the actual configuration of electronic orbits that is responsible for the element's chemical properties can be described as the one that minimizes the total energy, and the energy of each configuration can be computed by using quantum mechanics.

However, a careful analysis of this explanation reveals that, in addition to the basic equations of quantum mechanics, we need some heuristic rules that do not directly follow from quantum physics. One reason why additional heuristics are necessary is that the corresponding numerical equations are extremely difficult to solve, and as we move to atoms with larger and larger atomic numbers Z, they become even more difficult. Moreover, as Z grows, we must take relativistic effects into consideration, and this means going from partial differential equations to even more mathematically difficult operator equations.

In this paper, we show that if instead of the (often impossible) numerical optimization, we consider the (available) ordinal information, we can then explain the observed periodic system.