Publication Date



Technical Report: UTEP-CS-24-26


To make education more effective, to better use emerging technologies in education, we need to better understand the education process, to gain insights on this process. How can we check whether a new idea is indeed a useful insight? A natural criterion is that the new idea should explain some previously-difficult-to-explain empirical phenomenon. Since one of the main advantages of emerging educational technologies -- such as AI -- is the possibility of individualized education, a natural phenomenon to explain is the fact -- discovered by Benjamin Bloom -- that individualization adds two sigmas to the average grade. In this paper, we provide a possible theoretical explanation for this two-sigma phenomenon. In our explanation, we use another previously-difficult-to-explain empirical fact: that the grade distribution is often bimodal -- and we explain this auxiliary fact too. In view of the above, we hope that our explanations will eventually lead to a more effectively use of emerging technologies in education.