Publication Date

January 2002

Document Type



This paper was published as Novick, D., Romero, F., Saenz, E.R., and Sandoval, A. (2002). Extending Direct Manipulation in a Text Editor, Proceedings of SIGDOC 2002, Toronto, Canada, October 20-23, 2002, 127-132.

© ACM, 2002. This is the authors’ version of the work. It is posted here by permission of ACM for your personal use. Not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in: Proceedings of the 20th Annual International Conference on Computer Documentation. Toronto, Canada, October 20-23, 2002, 127-132.


This paper describes the implementation of a prototype text editor that incorporates conversation-like features through the direct-manipulation modality. In this way, traditional direct-manipulation interaction techniques such as direct reference via pointing can be extended to include techniques more commonly associated with human conversation, such as negotiation of reference. The paper illustrates the use of the prototype with an extended example, and discusses research issues raised by the implementation.